Baha’allah was not the real successor of Bab!
Siyyid Ali Muhammad ( Bab ) Mirza Yahya Nuri ( subh-i Azal )
A Great Historical Distortion in the Historical Documents of Bahaism
Bab himself appointed Subh-i-Azal as his successor!
Why did Bahai Leaders conceal the Book ” Nuqtatu’l-Kaf”
In the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris Edward Brown found a copy of the lost history written by Mirza Jani, entitled the Nuqtatu’l-Kaf!’ This manuscript was one of the Babi books brought back from Iran by the Comte de Gobineau and sold at auction after his death.
Comte de Gobineau
Browne eagerly compared this book with the New History, and discovered that while the New History embodied a great deal of what Mirza Jani had written in his history, a considerable amount of the material in the older history had been either changed or omitted by the authors of the New History. For example, while Mirza Jani gave a full account of the appointment of Subh-i-Azal by the Bab as his successor, and a detailed explanation of the exalted position which he occupied, one of equality with the Bab, the author of the New History omitted all this, and portrayed Baha as the greater person.(1)
Hence, when Browne published his translation of the New History in 1893, he included in it as an Appendix the most important passages of the Nuqtatu’l-Kaf which had been omitted or altered in the New History. (2)
Why was this done?
”The earliest, fullest and most interesting history of the Bab and his immediate disciples….was almost completely suppressed,”(4) wrote Browne,(5) ”because it reflected the opinion which prevailed immediately after the Bab’s martyrdom that his successor was Mirza Yahya Subh-i-Azal, and thus came into conflict with the Baha’i contention which arose ten or fifteen year later, and a recension of it was prepared (known as ’the New History! ..) in which all references to Subh-i-Azal were eliminated or altered, and other features regarded as undesirable were suppressed or modified.” (3) . . .
1. The New History of the Bab, pp. 374-382, Nuqtatu’l-Kaf, Int. in English, pp. XXXVI, XXXVII.
2. The New History of the Bab, translated by E. G. Browne, Cambridge, 1893.
3.The New History of the Bab, pages 327-396.
4. Only two complete copies of the Nuqtatu’l-Kaf in manuscript are known to be in existence today, one being that discovered by Browne in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Suppl. Pers. l071), from which he printed the Persian text, and the other in. the Library of Princeton University. See English Int. to Nuqtatu’l-Kaf pp. XIII, New History Int., pp. XXIX, XXX, and Notes of Dr. Sa’eed, pp. 5, 6 (also in the Princeton Library).
5. Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion, by E. G. Browne, Cambridge 1918, Int. p. XXIII, Nuqtatu’l-Kaf, English Int., p. XXXIV.
The Position of Mirza Yayha Noori – Subhe Azal
Let’s look at the life of the avowed enemy of Baha, his own brother Mirza Yahya Nuri. Since he is an enemy of The Bahai Faith, it is but natural that pleasant things will not be written about him. However we will only analyse how low Shoghi Affandi can actually fall in actually slandering his own ancestral blood.
Actually, Shoghi seems to be quite confused about the position of Azal or is it that he is deliberately fooling to save the face of The Bahai Faith. Liars have a weak memory and thus we find a lot of contradictions in his words.
Was Mirza Yahya Nuri the successor of the Bab?
Here Shoghi is in a dilemma. History proves that Mirza Yahya Nuri was actually the successor of the Bab. If Shoghi admits it, in a single strike of the pen, he will nullify the claims of Bahaullah, and the religion of The Bahai Faith, if he doesn’t, then he faces the problems of answering historians like ourselves.
Let us view the various versions of Shoghi regarding Bab :
Reference of This Article
- Bab nominated Mirza Yahya on the advice of Baha (Ref. , page 23)
- When His (Bab’s) nominee (Mirza Yahya) roamed the mountains and the plains of the neighborhood of Rasht. (Ref. ,page 45)
- The nominee of the Bab was the credulous and the cowardly Mirza Yahya (Ref. ,page 72)
- Mirza Yahya claimed to be the successor of the Bab (Ref. ,page 73)
- Mirza Yahya was the provisionally appointed centre of Babism (Ref. ,page 81)
- Mirza Yaha was one of the half-brothers of Bahaullah, the nominee of the Bab, and the recognised chief of the Babi community (Ref. ,page 103)
Thus even though he tried a lot to hide it, Shoghi has to admit that Mirza Yayha was infact the successor of the Bab. Hence the claim of Baha was void and without merit.
The Character and Deeds of Mirza Yayha :
Shoghi has tried to malign the character of Mirza Yahya. Its is not that Mirza Yahya Nuri was a nice man, he may have been evil but Shoghi has bent over backwards to malign him. His main motive to slander the character of Mirza Yahya was to build a ground for the successorship of Baha amongst the Babis after the demise of Bab.
However he has not realised that the successor of Bab should be as crafty and vile as him. The fact that Baha could manage to overcome the crafty Mirza Yahya shows the high level of craftiness found in him.
Mirza Yayha was credulous and cowardly (Ref. ,page 72)
The Various Disguises of Mirza Yayha :
- Mirza Yayha, a bewildered fugitive in the guise of a dervish, with a kashkul (alms bowl) in his hand, roamed the mountains of Rasht (Ref. ,page 45)
- With Bab no longer in the midst of his followers, his nominee (Mirza Yahya) either seeking a safe hiding place or wearing the disguise of a dervish or of an Arab wandering from time to time (Ref. ,page 73)
- Mirza Yahya after the execution of the Bab sustained such a violent shock that his faith almost forsake him. Wandering for a time in the guise of a dervish, he by his behaviour, had so severely tasted the loyalty of his fellow believers in Nur, that they too wavered in their convictions, some of them going so far as to throw in their lot with the enemy. He subsequently proceeded to Rasht and concealed himself in the province of Ghitan until his departure to Kirmanshah, when in order to better screen himself, he entered in the services of a certain Abdullah Qazvini, a maker of shrouds and became a vendor of his goods… He then proceeded in the garb of an Arab by way of Mandalij to Baghdad. He established himself there in the street of the charcoal makers, situated in a dilapidated quarter of the city, and placing a turban upon his head and assuming the name of Haji Ali, he embarked upon his newly chosen profession (Ref. ,page 73)
- Mirza Yahya has even after the return of Baha from Sulaymania, either chosen to maintain himself in an inglorious seclusion in his own house or had withdrawn whenever danger threatened to such places at Hillah and Basra. To the latter he fled disguised as a Baghdadi Jew, and became a shoe merchant. (Ref. ,page 114)
- The conduct of Mirza Yahya who prided himself on his high sounding titles of Mirat-ul- Azaliyah (Everlasting Mirror), of Subh-e-Azal (Morning of Eternity) and of Ismul Azal (Name of Eternity).. were by now assuming such a character that the prestige of the faith was being directly involved or its future security seriously imperiled (Ref. ,page 73)
- Mirza Yahya dispatched Mirza Mohammed Mazandarani, one of his supporters, for the express purpose of murdering (Asadullah) Dayyan (Ref. ,page 79)
- Dayyan however was murdered by Khadimullah, the servant of
Mirza Aqa Jan (Khadimu’llah) as a young man
- Mirza Yahya ordered that the cousin of the Bab, Mirza Ali Akbar, a fervent admirer of Dayan, be secretly put to death (Ref. ,page 79)
- Mirza Yahya along with a band of ruffians used to snatch at night, the turbans from the heads of wealthy pilgrims who had congregated at Kerbala, steal their shoes, rid the shrine of Imam Hussain of its diwans and candles and seize the drinking cups from the water fountains. (Ref. ,page 79)
The Decline of Mirza Yayha and His Subsequent Deeds :
- It was the period of exile of Baha during which the prestige of the community’s nominal head steadily declined from the scene. (Ref. ,page 81)
- When Mirza Yahya heard about the claim of prophethood by Baha and his honoring by the people, he remarked to Sayid Mohammed, Had I not chosen to hide myself, had I revealed my identity, the honour accorded to him (Baha) would have been mine too. (Ref. ,page 99)
- Mirza Yahya stained the annals of his faith with indelible infamy. His corruption in scores of instances, of the texts of Bab’s writings, the blasphemous addition he made to the Adhan in which he identified himself with Divinity, his condemnation to death of all the mirrors of the Bab’s Dispensations, his dastardly hand in the murder of Dayan, his foul deed in bringing about the murder of Mirza Ali Akbar, the Bab’s cousin, his unspeakable repugnant violation of the honour of the Bab himself (illicit relations with the Bab’s wife) were to be thrown into yet more into lurid light by further acts, the perpetration of which were to seal irretreivably his doom.( Ref. ,page 104)
- Mirza Yahya made desperate designs to poison the Baha and his companions… he invited Baha to his house where one day, having smeared his cup with a substance which he had connocted, he succeeded in poisoning him sufficiently to produce in him an illness which lasted no less than a month and which was accompanied by severe pains and high fever, the aftermath of which left Baha with a shaking hand that lasted till the end of his life.( Ref. ,page 104-105)
- Mirza Yahya poisoned the well which provided water for the family and companions of Baha (Ref. ,page 105)
- Mirza Yahya asked Ustad Mohammed Sulayman, the barber to assasinate Baha while he was attending to Him. (Ref. ,page 105)
Mirza Aqa Jan (Khadimu’llah)
- Baha made Aqa Jaan read out a part of the revelation to Mirza Yahya and asked him to reply it. The reply however was a counter declaration specifying the hour and the minute in which he had been made the recipient of an independent revelation, necessitating the unqualified submission to him of the people of the Earth, both of the East and the West. (Ref. ,page 105). Now whom do we believe??
- Mirza Yahya sent one of the wives to the Government house to complain that her husband had been cheated of their rights and that her children were on the verge of starvation. (Ref. ,page 106).
- Mirza Yahya challenged Baha for a debate, which never took place. (Ref. ,page 106-107)
- So great was the conflict between the two brothers that Baha was banished to the penal colony of Acca and Mirza Yahya to Famagusta in Cyprus (Ref. ,page 113).
The episode of Mirza Yahya and Bahaullah also throws light on the Unity or rather Disunity between the brothers. Unity is one of the teachings of The Bahai Faith, i.e., Bahais advocate Universal brotherhood between the people. But if two blood brothers, and both of which are in leadership positions could not maintain brotherhood and unity between themselves, then how can they preach it to the world. This shows the fallacy of their claims and the deception of their religion.
Attention O Bahais!
- Baha says “No one in this world can claim any relationship to Me except those who in all their deeds and in their conduct follow My example (Ref. ,page 85)
Thus if anyone has good relations with his brother, then he is not a Bahai as per the teachings of Baha. It is thus incumbent upon all Bahais to sever relations with their brothers if they want to be in the Faith and be acknowledged as a servant of Bahaullah.
The Bahais or their leaders themselves are not very clear of their own positions. At some places their positions are exaggerated to the level of Divinity, while at the other places they consider themselves to be meeker than the meekest creation. This shall be evident from their quotes.
“God passes by” (Shoghi Effendi )
The Bab: An objective analysis
The Bahai Faith finds its origin in the Babi movement started by Mirza Ali Mohammed – The Bab. The Bahais speak highly of The Bab and title him as the “forerunner” of Bahaullah. To get a measure of role of the Bab, one can pay attention to some of the rich tributes paid to The Bab by the leaders of the Bahai Faith.
Abdul Baha says about The Bab, “The Bab, the Exalted One, is the Morn of Truth, the splendor of Whose light shines throughout all regions. He is also the Harbinger of the Most Great Light, the Abha Luminary (Bahá’u'lláh).”
(Ref: The World Order of Bahaullah, p. 127)
The above statements will make it adequately clear that The Bab was the Harbinger and the Forerunner of the Bahai Faith. The Bahai Faith finds its foundations and its fundamentals in the Babi movement.
It is only fair that we judge the Bahai Faith on the basis of its origin and its foundations. It is an oft quoted cliché that if the foundation is strong, so will be the structure. If the foundation is weak, so will be the structure. This holds true whether it is construction of any kind or argumentation or religion. If the foundation of the religion is robust, then the structure that follows it will be strong too.
Using the above argument, we wish to look at the life and time of The Bab. Let us look at the strength of the Babi Faith. How steadfast was Bab? Did his life justify his claims as a divinely appointed leader (or God as he later claimed?) If the foundation called The Bab cannot hold the pressure of our arguments, the surely the edifice of Bahaullah and consequently that of Bahaism must crumble.
The early history of The Bab :
Bab was born on October 20, 1819 A.D. in the city of Shiraz in Iran. His father’s name was Mirza Raza Bazzaz who was a merchant by profession. His mother’s name was Fatime Khanum. When he was 7 years of age, he went to study under Shaikh Abid. Shaikh Abid was a scholar of the Shaikhiya sect, and so he infused all the ideas of the Shaikhiya sect into the mind of Mohammed Bab.
Was The Bab unlettered as the Bahais claim?
Abbas Effendi writes on page 8 of his book ‘Khutubat-e-Buzurg’, “It is incumbent on every prophet that he gains knowledge from Allah alone and not from any human being and such is the practice of all prophets like Prophet Ibrahim, Hazrat Mohammed, Hazrat Bab and Bahaullah. All of them did not study in any school because the one who owes his knowledge to human schools cannot be a divine representative.”
Fair enough. However history suggests quite the opposite.
Robert Stockman, an independent researcher writes in “Some notes on the Bab”, “The young boy was sent to a local teacher named Shaykh Abid for six or seven years for a private education (there being no public schools in Shiraz at the time). The teacher was a Shaykhí, as were the members of the Bab’s family, which suggests that the Báb was exposed to Shaykhí interpretations of Islam from a young age. The Báb very much disliked school, apparently acquired little book learning, and regarded much of the education He received as irrelevant.”
Now obviously there is a contradiction here. And with good reason too. In order to build credibility for the Bab and to misguide the Muslim community, the Bahais have tried to model the life of the Bab and present it in the same light as that of the Holy Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h). The similarities in their lives, (that of The Bab as reported by the Bahais) to the extent of reporting the Bab as an unlettered prophet, highlights the desperation of the Bahais to project the Bab in good light. But as history shows, deceit will be caught and truth will prevail.
It has been proved conclusively that the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) was not tutored by any worldly teacher. Despite this, the eloquence of the Quran and his (p.b.u.h) sayings reflect clearly that the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) was divinely inspired. At a time when the entire Arab community prided itself on its language, the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) brought forth the Quran, whose eloquence and beauty was a source of amazement for the Arabs and whose splendor continues shine forth till today. The Holy Quran itself testifies to this fact in, the Chapter of Najm, verses 3,4
“Nor does he speak of his own desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him”
But the obvious disregard by The Bab for even elementary teaching is reflected in his conversations with scholars who questioned his beliefs in the court of the Shah. He was ignorant of even the basic rules of Arabic grammar, mathematics, philosophy, or for that matter in any science of knowledge. I will write more about this in detail. For now, it suffices to say that here is an individual who did not fulfill the basic requirement of being the deputy of a divine leader, leave alone being a divine leader, and he sought to challenge the authority and the position of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) with his writings and his beliefs.
At many places we are exposed to the words of The Bab to the effect that he did not study any science of knowledge and hence should be considered as unlettered. Which may be true – but it is important to note that this ignorance of The Bab was by choice and not by default or any divine design.
The knowledge of The Bab :
The Bab possessed limited knowledge and this is amply demonstrated in the episode of his questioning at the court of the Shah. One only needs to read the incident to realize the number of times when he is silenced and unable to answer questions that would be answered by a relatively intelligent person.
The prophets of Allah, as we know them, may not have been accepted by their people, but at no place can we find that they were silenced by their opponents in debate or questioning. One can read about the life history of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) to understand the awe that the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) commanded over his opponents in discussions. This too is a measure of the truthfulness of a genuine representative of Allah.
What kind of prophet is that who puts forth his claims but is unable to reply to questions concerning his beliefs? What prophet is that who ridicules himself before learned scholars in elementary matters of language and science? Whose books are so full of mistakes that even an ordinary person could point them out? Definitely a false one.
In the episode of the questioning of the Bab in the court of the Shah of Iran, the Bab is unable to respond to questions about Allah, Islam, religious law or any traditions, yet he claimed to have brought a book which was better than the Quran!
If the Quran challenged all men and jinn to come together to produce a verse from the Quran, the Bab challenged all men and jinn to come together to produce “half a word”, from the Bayan they would be unable to do so! The challenge of The Bab is ridiculous. “Half a word” cannot be pronounced in order for it to be a permissible challenge. Even a child would understand that.
The idiocy of the arguments and the weakness in the explanations of the Bab itself are sufficient to recognize that at times, the Bab himself did not understand his own words. For example in his argument for proving his divinity, Bab says, my name is numerically equivalent to the word “Lord”.
(Ref: The Trial of the Bab in Mamaqani’s Namus-i Nasiri, page 42)
Does this mean that any person who shares the name Ali Mohammed or for that matter Mohammed Ali is worthy of being called God? According to the Bab, yes. As for my readers, I credit them with more intelligence than to accept this reasoning from the Bab.
To reply to his detractors in the court of the Shah to produce a miracle, the Bab puts forth the argument that the “sheer volume of his revelations” should be considered sufficient as a miracle. (Ref: The Trial of the Bab in Mamaqani’s Namus-i Nasiri, page 42)
Which is unacceptable. One cannot accept sheer volume of revelations as a miracle. Not when they are filled with mistakes from beginning to end. How can incorrect and stumbling words be considered miraculous?
It is important to note here that the Bab was asked to produce the miracle of Moses (who used to throw his staff on the ground to transform it into a snake). And was unable to do so. And had no reply to it either. In response he claimed to cause a verse (recited by him) to descend upon the staff. Well, he did recite the verse, but nothing happened. Absolutely nothing.
The steadfastness of the Bab :
It is true that all divine representatives of Allah, whether it was Hazrat Ibrahim, Hazrat Nuh or the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) faced resistance from their people when they proclaimed their call towards Allah. The Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) went through a series of social boycotts, persecution of his followers and finally had to leave his birthplace, Mecca for Medina. However at no place do we ever find that the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) or any other divine representative renounced their claims for fear of persecution. Even under the most difficult circumstances, the prophets of Allah remained steadfast in their beliefs and unwavering in their call towards Allah.
This steadfastness in the face of extreme trying conditions is something that distinguishes the genuine and authorized (if one can use this word) prophets of Allah from those who claimed prophethood. Nothing can be closer to this fact then the history of The Bab who at the slightest provocation renounced his claims, altered them to suit his mood and time and who at the end of it all has left all of us – seekers of the truth thoroughly confused.
In the book of Traveller’s Narrative, Abdul Baha, on pages 278-290 has narrated the incident of the Bab’s questioning at the court of the Shah. During the incident, when the Bab is questioned about the verses revealed unto him, he initially credits them to a God, but on being questioned with severity, Bab admits that they were his own handiwork.
As mentioned above the most difficult question about the steadfastness of Bab needs to be answered. Why did the Bab claim to be first the Gate of the Imam, then the Imam himself and then a prophet and then the forerunner of “One who Allah will Manifest” by God and then God Almighty himself. In a separate article, I will highlight each of these claims and substantiate them with references from Bahai books.
We need answers
Bahais need to provide answers to these questions. The position of The Bab in relation of the Bahai Faith is not an ordinary one. If there were no Bab, then there would be no Bahai.
Mirza Hussein Ali Nouri known as Bahaullah
He was born in Tehran in 1813. His father had two wives and seven sons but paid more attention to Baha and his brother Mirza Yahya ( Sobh-e Azal).
Mirza Yahya ( Sobh-i Azal)
Abbas Baha (Abdul_Baha)
For this objective, he had two families available: the Ifnani [branches of different sorts] (those related to Ali Mohammad Shirazi) and the Aghsani [branches growing out of branches] (his own relatives), including Abbas Baha, Ghusn-e A’zam (the greatest branch), Mohammad Ali Baha, Ghusn-e Akbar (the greater branch), and Mahdi, Ghusn-e Athar (the chaste branch). In his written will, bahaullah says: “It’s God’s will that all Aghsan and Ifnan should be supervised by Ghusn-e A’zam…God has placed the status of Ghusn-e Akbar (Mohammad Ali) after that
Mohammad Ali Baha , Ghusn-i Akbar
of Ghusn-e A’zam (Abbas Afandi), that is to say after me Abbas and after him Mohammad Ali are my successors.”
He wrote some 22 books, the most important of which are lqan (Certain) and Aqdas (most Holy), the latter he had unsuccessfully tried to write in Qur’anic style. His writings contain less grammatical mistakes when compared to those of Mohammad Ali but still have major errors. In this connection, he says:
Mirza Mahdi, Ghusn-i Athar
“My works should not be evaluated on the basis of grammatic and syntax rules, rather grammatic and syntax rules should be evaluated according to my writings!!”
1. Iqan, page 195
Bahaism And Zionism
In fact, today Zionism carries a general meaning. Zionism is not a religion but rather the combination of a hegemonist ideal and a chauvinist creed, seething with that aspiration. The objective of Zionism, under the garb of Judaism, is something beyond a theocratic rule. In reality, Judaism is a shield for Zionism. With the information we have so far gathered about Bahaism, we can easily find out the close connection between ideals of this schismatic group and those of Zionism. The headquarter of Bahaism is in a land where Zionism was imposed, both according to the hegemonist tendencies of imperialism. There are ample evidences that the old master of imperialism, Britain, has taken care of Bahaism and called for amicable ties between the Bahais and the Zionists. It is with the same objective that the Canadian widow of Showqi Afandi in 1961, when she was still leading the Bahais, said: “If I could choose, it is worth saying that I prefer this new faith could grow in this new land (Israel). In fact, I should say that our future and that of Israel are connected to each other like rings of a chain.” There are numerous documents available on the close links between Bahai and Israeli leaders but open support like what was mentioned in the above is enough to show the extent of amity between the two sects. The Associated Press, in a report which was printed in Tehran Times on June 20, 1987, reveals open relations between this fabricated faith and Israel:
“Haifa, Israel (AP) – The Israeli government has recognized Israel as the spiritual center of the Bahai faith, which has maintained its headquarters in the Zionist state for more than a century, the group’s leaders said yesterday.
The government also gave the faith the status of a non-profit organization exempt from taxes, paving the way for a 166 million dollar investment in new facilities, a Bahai spokesman said at a news conference.
Energy Barnett, the Los Angeles-born secretary-general of the Bahai faith, said the group would build a complex to house a library and study center in the northern Israel port cities of Haifa and Acre.
The two cities have served as the center for the Bahai faith since 1844, when the religion’s ‘prophet’ and founder Bahaollah fled persecution in which was then Persia, present-day Iran.
Barrett said the new facilities would be financed from small contributions by Bahai members in 140 countries, most of them in the Third World.” After constitution of the Zionism movement conference in 1898 in Bal city Tomansky, Jew orientalist published the holiest book of Bahais which have been collected by Bahaollah founder of Bahaism. In the same year the third conference of history of religion was held in Oxford University and researcher Rozenberg represented his study entitled Bahai-religion and its spiritual and social behaviour. In 1908, Jew Helmut Dryfus published the book of Bahaism, history and its social values in Paris and since then Zionist-Jews’ contributions and donations for constructing the main center of Bahais (Mashreq-ul Azkar-al Bahaian ) in Agra has been going on. From 1909 to 1912 Abbas Afandi (Abdul Baha ) accepted leaders of the Zionism movement in his headquarter located in Mount Carmal ( i.e. president and his wife). (83)
Sir Herbert Samuel
In 1920, when according to an accord signed in San Remo, Palestine was brought under the mandate of Britain, the British government spread its domination in this region and appointed Sir Herbert Samuel, from a famous Jewish family of Britain, as the first High Commissioner in Palestine. Sir Herbert had very close relations with the Bahais and attended Abbas Afandi’s funeral procession with ‘deep’ sorrow. After the rapid influx of Jews to Palestine and Arab uprisings in 1921, the Bahais openly supported the ‘British-Zionist’ plot and protested against any opposition on the part of the indigenous inhabitants of Palestine, the Arab Muslims.
In an official letter to the head of the special commission of the United Nations, Showqi Afandi made no reference to the legitimate rights of Palestinians and those of other Arab Muslims as if he had never been witness to the massacre and torture of thousands of Arabs by the British-Zionist forces . (84)In his message, he claimed that attachments of Jews and Bahais to Palestine were deeper than those of Muslims! The most interesting section of Showqi’s letter is the part that says: “Our objective is to perpetuate a general peace in the whole world and our ideal is to witness promulgation of justice in all aspects of human life, including in political affairs. Since a large number of our followers are of Jewish and Muslim origin, the Bahai sect has no prejudice against the two groups and is rather willing to establish peace and compromise between them to their own advantage and to the advantage of the country.”
In this part of the letter, which seemingly includes progressive ideas, contradictory points could be noticed. First, is it right to refer to making Muslim Palestinians homeless and spying for the British government, as well as meeting Zionist leaders prior to the formation of Israel, promulgation of justice in all aspects of human life? Secondly, is the torture of oppressed Palestinians whose legitimate rights over the sovereignty of their homeland has been violated, the perpetuation of general peace in the whole world for which the Bahais act as a liaison? Another point is that the precedessors of Bahais and Babis were seemingly Muslims and not Jewish, and therefore were ostracized by the Muslims.
Some years after the illegitimate birth of Israel in Palestine on May 14, 1948, the First Secretary of the International Bahai Council wrote a letter to the Bahai circle in Iran on May 3. 1954 in which he reported a meeting between Showqi Afandi and the Israeli president on April 26, 1954 :…………………………………………………………. Image : President of Israel ( 1954 )
“On that historic day, the president and his wife received the First Secretary at the special hall and after a few minutes the president and his companions left for the blessed residence of the Vali-e Amrollah (The guardian ) (Showqi ) who kindly received the president and his entourage. During the unofficial and friendly talks, Vali-e Amrollah ( The guardian ) outlined objectives and ideals of Bahaism and informed him of the friendly feelings Bahais had towards Israel and wished them success and prosperity for Israel. Meanwhile, the president noted that a few years ago when together with his wife he had travelled around the country, he had met Abdol Baha…” In his Tablet Now Ruz 108 Badi, addressing the Bahais, he outlined the opinion of Bahaism on the formation of Israel as follows:
“The evidence of God’s promise to the children of Khalil (Abraham ) and heirs of Kalim (Moses) was revealed and the Israeli government was formed in Qods and established ties with the international center of Bahais. It exempted the Bahais from paying taxes and officially recognized their holidays.”(85) In fact, could the Bahais, followers of a fabricated creed, continue their life without total support from imperialism and Zionism? The international board at Haifa in a letter to the national circle of the Bahais in Iran on July 1, 1952 described Showqi Afandi’s relations with Israel as follows: “Relations of the system with Vali-e Amrollah(The guardian ) and the international board of Bahais are amicable and sincere. In fact, it is quite satisfying that achievements have been gained on the recognition of Bahaism in this holy land.” (86 ) In a cable Showqi Afandi sent to the Bahai circle in Iran on May 4, 1954, he enlisted the newly gained achievements of the Bahais and also referred to his meeting with the Israeli president: ‘The Israeli president together with his wife after a reception” held in their honour at the holy resident of Abdol Baha, met the holy places at Jabal Karmel ( Mount Carmel). This was the first official visit by one of the heads of the European states …”(87)
A letter by the First Secretary of the International Council of Bahais, dated May 3, 1954, is a proof to the fact that the meeting was not a simple religious visit: “ Monday 26, April 1954 , is a historical day for the Bahais because on that day for the first time head of an independent state officially visited the Bab’s and Baha’s shrine and was received by Vali-e Amrollah (The guardian ) ( Showqi Afandi) (88 )
Bahai Support And Financial Assistance Tax For Israel :
Earlier references had been made to the frequent contacts between the Bahais and heads of the Israeli government but Showqi Afandi’s cable to the American circle of the Bahais on April 24, 1953 is an open example:
“The contents of the ‘blessed’ statement in Persian is as follows: Foundation of an independent government in the holy land ( Israel ) and centralization of the administration of the world embodying rules of Hadhrat Bahaollah, the first manifestation of which is the formation of the international Bahai council and construction of the holy center,…is now possible, thanks to the recent changes ushered by the newly established government. But, it still is in need of new developments and financial assistance due from national and local funds by Bahai societies in the East and the West.”(89 )
Following is the text of Showqi Afandi’s cable to the American Bahai circle on September 24, 1951:
“Inform all the national clerical circles of the Bahais throughout the world that agreements have been reached after lengthy negotiations, with the finance and religious affairs ministries, as well as the Haifa municipality, for the purchase of a plot of 22,000 square meters land valued at about 118.000 U.S. dollars on the slopes of Jabal Karmai in an area overlooking the holy place of Hadhrat (Bahaollah) and the eastern margins of the holy center. The purchase and possession of such a holy territory would help preservation of principles of the holy faith in organizing its followers, and would also enlarge the Bahai administration coming up in the international center for the divine rule in the holy territory. There is a possibility that Israeli heads of state would drop the planned construction of a highway… I intend to transfer some of the documents of the said areas from American and Indian national circles to Israel…”(90) The text of Showqi Afandi’s cable to the American Bahai center on April 3, 1952 is as follows: “Give this good news to the national circles in the East and the West that final formalities for the purchase of 18 plots of lands measuring about six acres beside the holy center have been completed with the Israeli government in return for 118,000 U.S. dollars… Hereby I deem it necessary to appreciate the infatiguable efforts of Mr. Lorenz who was the first pilgrim after the opening of the holy shrine and whose endeavours speeded up the talks..” ( 91)
In the book Historical Places of the Bahais in the Holy Land of Israel it has been mentioned: Finally, the Israeli Treasury issued an announcement which was printed in the country’s official magazine according to which all those who possessed buildings along the holy shrine were divested of their ownership (and ail have been given to Abdol Baha) and it has also been said: “On the occasion of the 135th birthday anniversary of Bahaollah, hereby all eastern and western Bahai societies are informed that lengthy discussions which started two years ago led to the signing of an agreement according to which officials at the Ministry of Development of the Israeli government have transferred large estates located in the vicinity of the holy place of the founder of the Bahai order (Bahaollah), officially to the branch of the national clerical circle of America in Israel, in order to preserve that holy place and its adjacent palace for the future generations to come. These estates which increased the Bahai property in Akka from 4,000 to 150,000 square meters were exchanged with an estate offered by the Bahais.
Bahai Centers in Israel :
UHJ and Some bahai project on mount carmel (Haifa / Israel )
As it has been previously mentioned, the most important center of the Bahais is the Great House of Justice or the Beit-ul Adl A’zam ( UHJ ) located on the slopes of Karmal mountain in Israel. One of the main residents of the Bahais is also in the city of Akka in which there are certain places which are highly respected by the Bahais including :
1. Sijn-e A’zam ( the great prison ) where Bahaollah
had been imprisoned for two years, two months and
five days (after being sent there to exile from Iraq). The
place is venerated as a shrine. In 1927, the Israeli
government officially recognized the area as one of the
Bahai holy places and therefore it was exempted from
paying due taxes.
2 . Qasr-e Mazra’eh (The Field Palace) , a stone
place where Bahaollah stayed for a while and now is
regarded as one of the Bahai holy places.
3. Beit-e Obood ( The Mansion of Obedience ), a place
where Bahaollah resided for seven years and is close to
the field palace.
5 . Maqbara-e Mobarak va Rozaeh Mobarakeh ( The Blessed Tomb and The Blessed Garden) located in Behji. Bahaollah stayed in this place for twelve years and is buried there. Therefore, the place is of great importance to the Bahais. There is a guest-house in this area to receive the Bahais. The place is opposite to an Israeli military camp called ‘Camp Bin Omay‘.
Another city where Bahais have several holy places, is the port city of Haifa. The city is the center for the administration affairs of the Bahais and, therefore, is more important than Akka. Several Bahai leaders are buried in Haifa including:
1 . Abdol Baha’s brother, known as Ghusn-e
Athar and his mother, known as Khanum Navvab.
2 . Abdol Baha’s sister, Varqeh
3 . Abdol Baha’s wife, Monireh
4. Beit-e Mobarak ( Blessed Mansion) Abdol Baha’s
residence-a Bahai holy place.
5. The office of Beit-ul Adi A’zam ( UHJ ) which remained
the main office until 1939 (and perhaps still is the
same). The place used to be a guest-house for Western
Bahais and is known as the old guest-house for the
6 . Maqam-e A’la’ ( The Supreme Place). The Bahais
believed that the body of Ali Mohammad Shirazi (Bab)
is buried here and is one of the main centers of the
Bahais known as the Bahai Ka’aba. The place is situated
beside Karmal mountain and is surrounded by other
luxurious Bahai buildings in this area.
7 . Dar-ul Aasar Beinolmeiali ( The House of
International Works). The place, designed at the time of
Showqi Afandi, through Israeli cooperation, comprises a stately mansion supported by 50 elegant pillars, each six meters high.
8 . Maqam-e A’la’ ( Lofty Station) guest house, a
residence for all Bahai travellers.
9. Baq-e Rezvan, one of the Bahai centers.
10. Maqam-e Abdol Baha ( Station of Abdol Baha) ,
the burial place of Abdol Baha and an important shrine.
11 . Golestan-e Javid ( The Eternal Garden), a
cemetery in the city of Haifa where Bahai leaders,
except for the old ones, are buried. The place is also
12 . Zamin-e Sharq-ul Azkar a ground near
Maqam-e A’la‘ and one of the Bahai holy places which
is only open on Sundays during special ceremonies.
13. Newly established centers in Haifa.
A ) The building of Dar-ul Tashri Beinolmeiali was
built beside Maqam-e A’la‘ in 1977.
B ) The building of Beit-ul Adi A’zam ( UHJ ) was also
constructed in 1977 upon a decision by the resident
Bahai leaders. The large building comprised 150 rooms.
Attempts By The Bahais And Their Supporters For the Recognition of Bahaism :
In March 1948, British and Zionist circles and their allies in a bid to support the activities of the Bahais, recognized the Bahai movement as a peace-loving movement and called for its recognition by the world body as a non-state organization like the UNESCO. A year earlier, in the spring of 1947, the national Bahai circle in America and Canada was accepted as a non-state national organization at the general information office of the United Nations and granted an observer status. However, a year after eight other national circles were collectively recognized as the international Bahai society. In 1970, the economic and social council of the United Nations granted a consultative status to the society and on March 8, 1976 it was officially recognized by the UNICEF. In 1972, Bahais residing in Egypt filed a protest against the decision of the country’s high court taken in 1960 which deprived them of all their activities. In their appeal to the state council, the Bahais claimed that the verdict was illegal since Egypt‘s constitution guaranteed freedom of expression for all. The case was handed over to the supreme court which declared that the rulings of the court for the dissolution of all Bahai circles and societies had not been against the constitution and put forward three reasons, backing its declaration.
1 . Guarantees stipulated in the constitution on
freedom of religious observances embody only the three
2 . Performance of religious rites are controlled and
confined to the limits which would not disturb public
order or harm moral values governing the society. Since
Bahai rites disturb public order in Egypt which is a
purely Muslim state, therefore the constitution
guarantees no support for Bahaism.
3 . According to legal principles, all Bahai societies
and circles are brought within the framework of the
Elections Act which is governed by the Ministry of
Social Affairs. The constitution prohibits formation of such societies whose activities are against the principles of the Egyptian society. According to the rulings of the Supreme Court, Bahaism is outside the pale of a doctrine or a religious ideology and is, therefore, a political group which is regarded as the enemy of the Arab people. However, the Bahais are still making efforts in European and American countries to gain official recognition either as a religious group or as a trade company.
Former UN leader Kurt Waldheim
On August 6, 1976, the then Secretary General of the United Nations, Kurt Waldheim sent a message through the U.N. envoy in Paris to the Bahai conference there in support of the faith. The reason behind such a support is apparently either Waldheim’s lack of familiarity with the fabricated creeds or his collaboration with colonial powers.
Bahais, Spies of Zionism :
Bahaism falls outside the pale of a doctrine or a religious ideology and is therefore, a political group which is regarded as the enemy of the Arab people. ( 92 )
Even before Arab countries realized the role Bahaism was playing in the flow of information and its overt or covert assistance to the Zionists and British, politico-religious experts in Iran were fully aware of the case and regarded it as a serious threat. Because , before that there were no such persons as Jewish-Bahai in Iran. It was after close relationship was established between Abbas Afandi and the Zionists that a group of Jews registered their names as Bahais. ‘Israel, the heart of the world’ was a common term invented by Showqi Afandi and frequently referred to by both the Bahais and the Jews, a term which would shield interests of the two groups.(93) Following the expansion of the intelligence network of the Arab states and their sovereignty over their political and economic life and after a serious follow up and collection of sufficient documents revealing the subserviency of the Bahai leaders to the Zionist agents, the Arab League gave priority to the issue of Bahaism on its agenda of Arab sanctions against Israel. The result was that in 1975, Mohammad Mahjoub, the high commissioner of the Arab sanctions offices against Israel while in Damascus referred to Bahaism as a movement advocating Israel and Zionism.
Even, regulations governing the organisation of Bahaism are manifestations of the spying nature of the outfit. For instance, Bahais are the only so-called religious group who have set the condition of registration and preparation of a file in advance for those who wish to join their ranks.
Today, with regard to the number of Bahais and their massive propaganda effort aimed at delivering mortal blows on moral values of the people the world over, and due to their subserviency to Israel and the role the Zionist regime plays in collecting information for the imperialists, it is crystal clear that the complicated structures of Bahaism have not been laid down merely for the sake of an ideology or a religion.
Some bahai project on mount carmel (Haifa / Israel )
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 and disclosure of the activities of the ex-Shah’s information and security organization (SAVAK),(94) which was in itself an organization at the service of imperialism, a remarkable amount of documents were seized which further revealed the role Bahais played in collecting information about the Islamic world and relaying them to Israel. Of course, the real role of the Bahais as the spies of the Zionists has been fully realized by other Arab and Muslim states.
Some SAVAK Documents in This Connection :
1. Report H6540 dated 47/2/24, Ja’afar Bahzadpour
at the Protocol Commission: “The Iranian nation is
further trying for its progress and has relations with
most of the countries of the world. But some of these
countries, mainly beloved Israel, and some European
states are more famous in the world and we should
further strengthen our ties with them. At present, we
are supporting Israel and opposing Arab and Muslim
states. God willing, the United Nations would recognize
us and then we would further increase our activities.”(95)
2. Report SAVAK H3/10465 dated 46/10/13, recently a group of Bahais have come to Shiraz at the invitation of the national circle of Shiraz in order to conduct a census of all the Bahais and send the result to the national circle and Beit-ul Adl A’zam ( UHJ ) in Israel.
3. Report H9864 dated 47/7/27, Ehsanollah
Mehdizadeh at the meeting of the Bahai leaders: “We
the Iranian Bahais have deposited some one million and
eight thousand tomans in the Beit-ul Adl A’zam fund.
Now the dear Bahais are wealthy and therefore they
should no longer deposit their assets at Iranian banks
but rather in banks in Israel and Britain and allocate the
interest of their deposited money to the impoverished
4. Report H/14700 dated 49/12/1, text of a letter by
Beit-ul Adl A’zam, was read at a Bahai session as
follows: “We dispatched 14 of the leading Iranian
Bahais for a 25-day mission to Kampala (Uganda) in Africa, London, India and Pakistan. The ‘center of
promise (Haifa) appreciates the efforts you, the Iranian
Bahais, are making. So far, the clerical circle has put
the information gathered about the Arab states and by
our London spies at the disposal of Israel since our
friends have gathered information from each country
they visited and since our friends are fully aware of
what is going on in every country.
83. See TEHRAN TIMES, June 20th 1987, and also essay dated 64.4.28 narrated by Arabia Journal, printed in London
84. The full text of the letter was printed In “Bahai News” weekly in
Sept. 1947, and volume 7 of Akhbar-e Amri
85. Towqiat Mobarakeh Vali-e Amr, page 290
86. Akhbar-e Amri, page 16, 1952
87. ibid, vol. 12, I952
88 . ibid, page 9, 1953
89. ibid , 1951
90. ibid , 1952
91. ibid , 1952
92. Parts of the verdict of Egypt‘s supreme court on Bahaism as a religious minority in 1972. See TEHRAN TIMES 1985, 64.4.28
93. Bahais, page 741
94. SAVAK, the dreadful intelligence organization or the ex-shah’s regime
95. It should be noted that Bahais have their influence in some U.N. sections.
Bahaism And The Pahlavi Regime
The sinister Pahlavi regime which came to power with the patronage of British colonialism and continued its vicious life through the support of the criminal U.S. , had always been referred to as an anti-popular, anti-Islamic regime serving the interests of imperialism and Zionism. During the Pahlavi regime, the Bahais mostly belonged to the wealthy class of the society and it was clear for all that not only the Bahais were being supported by the regime but in fact were ruling over the country themselves. The deposed Pahlavi regime had even taken a humble stand towards the Bahais and although their activities were against the constitution since it had only stipulated enforcement of Islamic rules, the Shah (king) would treat them as other religious minorities and in some cases he would give priority to their affairs rather than those related to the Muslims.(1)
Amir Abbas Hoveyda
This reality would not be forgotten that Amir Abbas Hoveyda, a Bahai-Zionist agent, ruled over the affairsnb for thirteen years as the prime minister of a Muslim country. Hoveyda’s father, Mirza Habibollah Einolmolk, was Abdol Baha’s writer and steward but after a while joined the Foreign Ministry and was commissioned to propagate Bahaism in Arab countries.
Edward Granville Brown
On Hoveyda’s father, who had been previously known as Mohammad Reza Shirazi, Edward Brown has written: “Mohammad Reza Shirazi was one of Bahaollah’s confidants who, after Bahaollah, had the responsibility of safeguarding the secrets of Bahaism.’ ( 2 )
In 1920, Einolmolk’s son was born and he requested Abbas Afandi (Abdol Baha) to let him call his son after him and later added ‘Amir’ to the beginning thus, the
Protection classified-news report
Page No. one out of one.
Copy No. one out of four.
1. From: 321
2. To: H 7/
3. Report No. H/6946
4. Report date 47/3/11
7. Source of report-colleague
8. Place: Bahai circle
9. Date report received by the source: 47/3/7
10. Date report received by the source: 47/3/7
11. Date report received by the leader of the local
12. Protection considerations
Shiraz ( Iran )
At 6:30 p.m. on May 28, 1968, the commission Nafahat Allah (God’s Bestowals) had a meeting at circle No. 4 situated in the Nawab religious theater at the residence of Assadollah Qodsian. Speaker of the session, Abbas Aqdassi said:
The Court Minister Assadollah Alam
” His Excellency the Court Minister Assadollah Alam has been very graceful to us specially his Excellency Amir Abbas Hoveyda, who is Bahai (by origin). May God bestow them the status of eldermanship of the Bahais. They are requested to hand over a report of their activities to Beit-ul Adl A’zam ( UHJ ). His eminence Bahaollah has stated: “The Israeli government in the course of the 1967 war has been recognized as the world champion. We, the Bahai community, admire this beloved nation of the Jews and are quite happy that they are compiling plans for the revitalization of Iran. The progress and success of we the Bahais is indebted to the fact that we have our own spies in each Iranian office and ministry and each week when the proposed plans are reported to Shahanshah Aryamehr ( King of Iran ) by the government, reports reach the Bahai clerical circles on the related plans. For instance, in the ‘contractor council’, the Bahai staff would provide a daily report on the activities of the Iranian army, on how arms were imported into Iran and how the paracheutists received training, and would hand the reports over to the clerical circle of the Bahais. Hoveyda’s presence in many other Bahai meetings has also been reported.(4 )
As soon as the Bahais were appointed to key positions in the country and held control of the major part of the state economy, they would no more try to deny their fabricated creed whereas before they would refrain from openly expressing their ideological views. A proof to the case is the 1966 general census during which the Bahai leaders instructed all the Bahais to officially announce their religion when questioned by the actuaries. But, since Bahaism had not been officially recognized in the country, officials in charge of the general census, apparently being scared of the wrath of the Muslim Iranians who still considered Bahaism as a misleading creed, in a circular issued to all the governors-general and governors, instructed them to refrain from mentioning the term ‘Bahai’ under the column ‘religion‘. However, Dr. Shahpour Rasekh, a hard-core Bahai who for years had served as the head of the Statistics Center and Deputy Plan and Budget Organization, despite the instructions mentioned his religion as Bahai.(5) The story of defraudation of the Bahais on dividing Showqi Afandi’s inheritance and their various cases in judicial courts, further reveals Bahai connections with the former regime.
Political and economic influence of the Bahais over the deposed Pahlavi regime is so clear that no one could have the slightest doubt about it. To further unveil their penetration in political affairs and their involvement in an issue termed ‘freemasonry-Bahaism’ (which would be further elaborated later), it is sufficient only to review the agenda of the normal annual session of the general assembly of Omana company in 1967:
The annual session of the general assembly of Omana company was held following an advertisement printed in the edition 7146 of the daily Kayhan on May 30, 1968.(6) The official organ of the imperial government, No. 4696 dated May 20, 1968, the session was held at 18:00 hours Tuesday May 30, 1968 at the office of the company located in Manuchehri Avenue, Arbab Jamshid Alley, No. 37, in the presence of all the share holders (with names of 19 participants). Since the number of participants reached the required maximum, the session was officially opened to elect the chairman and the secretary, and as a result, engineer Abdolhussein Taslimi (a relative of Manuchehr Taslimi, president of Abu Sina freemasonry lodge and commerce minister in Hoveyda’s government was elected chairman and Fathollah Ferdowsi as the secretary. Then deliberations were held over the agenda.
1. Brigadier General Ataollah Moqarrebi, a member of the board of directors, presented a comprehensive report over the activities of the company and also reported on the 1967 balance sheet.
…Since the four-year period of office of the board of directors has terminated, therefore, elections were held for the nomination of the functioning members as well as for the substitutes. The result was as follows:
1. Major general Sho’aollah Alaei
2. AH Mohammad Varqa
3. Brigadier General Ataollah Moqarrebi
These three persons were elected as the functioning members of the board of directors for a period of four years…Brigadier General Moqarrebi, ( later promoted to the rank of Major General) a member of the board of directors of Omana company, was executed on charges of spying for the Soviet Union, in January 1978. Among the functioning members of the board, names of three high-ranking army officers could be seen which is an indication to the deep penetration of Bahaism in the army with regard to the fact that Omana company used to be one of the Bahai organizations. Also, another SAVAK report on the Bahais reads as follows:
Report No. H 11181-1350/5/19, in a meeting with the participation of twelve Bahais, Mr. Farhangi said: “Bahais are quite successful in Muslim states and could gain whatever advantages they wish to. All the capitals in banks in Iran belong to the Bahais and the Jews who own all the skyscrapers in Tehran, Shiraz and Isfahan. Economic wheels in this country are run by the Bahais and the Jews. Hoveyda himself is a Bahai. A member of the secret police at the imperial court is trying to convict Hoveyda but he is one of the servitors of Bahaism. This year he donated 15,000 tomans ( Rials 150,000 ) to our circle. Gentlemen, do not let Muslims overcome difficulties.”
1 . For Instance bahaism & the pahlavi regime bahaism & the pahlavi regime of the Bahais and transfer of lands to certain people and illegal transactions through their special banks called “Nonahalan”.
2 . See Bahaism Narrated by History, by Bahram Afrasyabi, page 293,
and Material for the Study of Babi Religion, page 20
3 . Bahaism Narrated by History, page 241
4 . Bahaism Narrated by History
5 . Division in bahaism , by Ismaell Raein , page 243
6 . Bahaism narrated by History, page 264-5
Britain‘s Role In Consolidation And Expansion Of Bahaism
The October 1917 Russian Revolution for a while preoccupied the Russians with their domestic issues and prevented them from other hegemonist policies. On the other hand, the Bolshevik doctrine, in the early years of its power, showed no willingness towards encouraging hegemonist tendencies. Therefore, Babism and later Bahaism which were directly or indirectly under the patronage of the Russian government, clearly fell into the hands of the British government. The Bahai base in Ashqabad was thus closed down. Qarn-e Badi, one of the reliable sources of Bahais, writes in this connection:
Queen Victoria, 1819 – 1901
“Colonel Arnold Combal was the consul general of the British government in Baghdad. Noticing the sublime personality of Master Bahaollah, he wrote a friendly note to him asking him to accept the support and citizenship of his government. Being received in audience, he undertook the responsibility of making the required efforts in sending Bahaollah’s letter to the British court if the Master desired to correspond with Queen Victoria. He even proposed that he was ready to provide facilities for the transfer of the residence of the Master to India or wherever he desired.”(1)
In fact, even if this one document had been found on the subserviency of the Bahais to the British government, it would have been enough. Mirza Hussein Ali Bahaollah stayed in Iraq for 12 years, the first two years of his exile in the mountains of Iraqi Kurdestan and the remaining period in Baghdad. While in the mountains, he would dress as sufis and live among them. A picture is available of him dressed as sufis.
Following the sufferings of the Iraqi Muslims at the hands of the rebellious Bahais, the Ottoman government upon a request by the Iranian ambassador in Istanbul Mirza Hussein Qazvini, who later became the chancellor, exiled the Babis to the remotest areas of the Ottoman territory. They were later sent to Adrianopole where the Babis refer to as the… secret land. It was in Adrianopole where Bahaollah laid claim to Bab’s mantle as the Awaited One and rejected his brother Mirza Yahya Sobh-e Azal, It is interesting that Combal offered the title of Baron before these claims were raised by Hussein Ali Mirza. When the seditious role of the Babis was revealed to all foreign governments, the French decided to take advantage as well. To this end, the deputy consul of the French embassy secretly met Bahaollah and held talks with him for half an hour. It was in this meeting that the French official, according to Kavakeb-ud Dorriyeh, asked Bahaollah to apply for French citizenship so that they could support him.(2) It is obvious that the objective of the British and French governments by offering citizenship to Bahaollah was to dispatch him to areas such as India on behalf of the British and to Algeria on behalf of the French governments in order to promote schism in Muslim land. Otherwise, the Bahais had no advantage other than disturbing peace and laying claims to prophethood.
After the Azalis and Bahais split, Mirza Hussein Ali was sent into exile to Akka where he stayed until he died in 1892 and was replaced by his son Abbas Afandi.
During the leadership of Abbas Afandi, the Ottomans were embroiled in military hostilities with the British, and since Abbas Afandi was an advocate of the British government, he would collect military information in Akka and Haifa. He would also provide the English forces with the required foodstuff.
Foreign Minister Lord Balfour (1848 – 1930)
After the Ottomans found out that Abbas Afandi and his followers were spying for the British government in Palestine and that he was a British mercenary, as Showqi Afandi has asserted in his book Qarn-e Badi the commander-in-chief of the Ottoman government Jamal Pasha decided to execute Abbas Afandi for his espionage acts.(3) But Britain in an open support for Abbas Afandi, commissioned the then Foreign Minister Lord Balfour to send a cable to the commander of the British corps in Palestine General Lord Allenby, stressing protection for Master Abdol Baha (Abbas Afandi), his family and his friends.(4)
The possible arrest and execution of Abbas Afandi was reported to Lord Cruiseden by Jamal Pasha but General Allenby in a pre-emptive action, seized Haifa and cabled to London: “Palestine was seized today. Inform the world that Abdol Baha is alive.”
Abdolhussein Avareh writes in his book: “Seemingly, the British commander who seized Haifa in 1918 had received the special order to be received in audience by Abdol Baha. That is to say, he had been commissioned by the British empire to meet Master Abdol Baha upon his arrival in Haifa, and the British king decorated him with Knighthood.(5)
Abdul Baha was receiving the medal of Knighthood
Lady Blendid said The English Government according to its usual system for protecting and encouraging the heroes awarded Abdul Baha a medal of knighthood which is ordered by the just King as a sign of honour for him and he accepted it.
In gratitude for receiving the title of ‘Sir’, Abbas Afandi prayed for the grandeur of the British King, George V, and the continuation of his rule in Palestine:
“O God, the royal court has been set up throughout this realm, from East to the West, and I thank you for such a powerful and just kingdom which does its best for the welfare of the people. O Lord! let the great empire of George V, the King of Britain be victorious and make his kingdom everlasting.”
The crystal clear connection between Bahais and the British government does not end here. In his various interviews arranged during his trips to Europe, Abdol Baha once said in London: “The power which attracted me towards you was the same magnet of your love. The Britons I have met so far had pure souls and were active for the purpose of peace (the British-type peace and the kind of unity to the advantage of the British government). Therefore, London would be suitable for the spread of this task (Bahaism). (6)
In one of his speeches, quoted from the book Collections of Abdol Baha’s Orations Abdol Baha addresses his English audience and says: “I am satisfied with the people and government of Britain…My coming here, has resulted in consolidation of friendship between Iran and Britain. This friendship will soon reach the extent that Iranians would sacrifice their lives for the sake of Britain.”(7)
Abbas Afandi , after making several trips to Europe and America with the objective of presenting Bahaism as a common ideal among all religions and all peace-loving nations was warmly received by his masters and finally gave up his ghost in 1921. The diplomatic representative of Britain in the Middle East , sent messages of condolences to the Bahais.
During his funeral processions high-ranking British personalities such as Herbert Samuel and Sir Ronald Stores were present. On this occasion, the then minister of British colonies Mr. Winston Churchill sent a cable of condolences to Haifa which read: “I hereby convey the sympathy and condolences of His Majesty the King of Britain to the Bahai community. Similar cables have been sent by other high-ranking British officials on this occasion “ .
Britain‘s support for Bahaism has continued till the present time and comprehensive research works have been conducted by major British universities to explore the possibility of further promotion of this pseudo-religion.
In Akhbar-e Amri magazine, the official publication of Bahai circle, published in 1919, it was reported that Bahai representatives attended meetings of the international union held in Colonge , west Germany
along with high-ranking officials, including the former British prime minister. The same magazine some six years later congratulated the king of England on the occasion of his birthday in an official note sealed by the Bahai circle and the king in return thanked them.
There are several other instances but generally it could be said that Britain patronized the spread of Bahaism by encouraging Abdol Baha who was later decorated with medals for his espionage acts. Abdol Baha’s grandson, Showqi Afandi, is burried in London. Today, many Bahais are active in Britain and have invested in Britain’s economic activities.
1.Qarn-e Badi, vol. 2, page 134, by Showqi Afandi
2.Kavakeb-ud Dorriyeh, vol. 1, pages 380-1
3.Qarn-e Badi , vol. 3 , page 291
4.Qarn-e Badi , vol. 3 , page 297
5. Kavakeb-ud Dorriyeh, vol. 2, page 305, by Abdolhussein Avareh
6. Trial of the Zionist Goldziher, page 270
7. Khatabat-e Abdol Baha , vol. 1, page 23
U.S. Support For The Bahais
As soon as Abbas Afandi noticed that the British power was on the brink of decline, he turned towards America since he felt that the Americans were willing to cooperate with him. In his visit to the U.S. he said: “…Tonight I am happy to be in such a gathering. I am oriental but, thank God, have taken part in a gathering of westerners. Here there are people whose faces are bright with the light of humanity and this is a proof to the safety of such a gathering. This is also a proof to the fact that Eastern and Western nations may get united and that full links would be established between America and iran.”(1)
Abbas Afandi even went beyond this and in order to please his American masters said: “The Americans would find no country more proper than Iran for their trade since Iran is rich in natural resources, all hidden beneath the earth. I hope that the Americans could be able to take this wealth out of the earth.” In his visit to Washington, Abdol Baha was introduced to many
ranking American persons.(2)
U.S. President Lyndon Johnson
In 1967, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson sent a friendly cable to the National Circle of the American Bahais on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Bahaism. The letter with Johnson’s signature has been printed in the book The Bahai World. The letter reads: “Your objective is America’s objective. To this end, Brand Scott, a close friend of Jimmy Carter, would visit Iran to make efforts for the recognition of Bahaism in Iran.” In fact, Scott had been commissioned to collect the required information through Bahai agents. For instance, in a confidential letter sent to all Bahai circles in Iran it had been instructed that all military personnel serving in the imperial armed forces (of Mohammad Reza Shah) should be identified and their list should be sent to Beit-ul Adl and Bahai circles in London, as well as to Brand Scott in the U.S. The letter noted that Scott had asked for the list but no one in the armed forces could have prepared it.
In his tablet numbered 8-6125, Abdol Baha has written: “America before God is an arena for spiritual insight and a country for the emergence of secrets, where freemen would gather. In this land, basis would be laid for the domination of the ‘Greater Name’ over a legitimate and valid system.”
Mohammad Reza Shah ( Iran )
Therefore, American Bahaism has laid the foundation for its constitution and through Israel’s Beit-ul Adl has propagated it the world over. It is for this same reason that the first constitutional circular was compiled by the Americans which was translated and put into practice by other circles in other parts of the world. In return, agents of Bahaism in Israel undertook the responsibility of protecting the sect throughout the world.
Other U.S. Support :
In 1962, a Moroccan court tried a number of Bahais and sentenced three of them to death. Later, on February 18, 1963, a U.S. Senate representative delivered a speech in which he condemned the ruling of the court while praising Bahaism and followers of this fabricated faith (document Akhbar-e Amri 1963 )
Location of Chile
Meanwhile, the U.S. subservients, including a member of the continental consultative delegation for South America and three members of the national circle in Chile in 1979 had a half-an-hour talk with the Chilean President Pinochet in which meeting, Pinochet expressed his deep interest in Bahaism. He also asked for pictures showing propagation activities of the Bahais in Chile which were presented to him by the national circle. The report of the meeting and pictures of the visitors with the president were printed in all the five national newspapers of Chile. ( Akhbar-e Amri 1978).
The Hawaii state consultative assembly has issued an announcement addressed to the Bahais in that state and praised their services and noted that Bahaism was a service to all mankind. ( Akhbar-e Amri 1971). The mayor of Chicago also met with several members of the Chicago Bahai circle at the city municipality. ( Akhbar-e Amri 1968 )
Click here to view the stereotype of the U.S. Senate concurrent Resolution
Bahaism found its way to the United States in 1892 and presently there are some 100,000 Bahais in America. Marriage and official holidays of the Bahais have been officially recognized in the U.S.
Views of Bahai Leaders on the Great Satan (u.s.) :
Abdol Baha: “America before God is an arena for spiritual insight and a country for the emergence of secrets, where freemen would gather. America would become the pioneer of justice the world over. The American Bahais are Abdol Baha’s apostle.”
The book General Tablets, 1917, by Abdol Baha says: “The American Bahai community, after 50 years of hardship would succeed in enlightening the history of mankind.”
Abdol Baha addressing national circles in America and Canada: “Adopt a sound and dignified plan, the objective of which should be the establishment of at least one administrative center in each of the states and any republics of the American continent.”
Abdol Baha: “American Bahais are the main founders of the new order and pioneers of world spirituality.”
Showqi Afandi: “The American Bahai community is a body with a grave spiritual mission and responsibility. ( Akhbar-e Amri 1959). American circles have been delegated rights and duties which have not been delegated to other countries of the Eastern hemisphere and no one could claim to undertake such responsibilities.”
Activities of Bahais in America :
1. The international audio-visual center of Bahais is
located in New York.
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution and
restrictions of the Islamic Republic for the flow of
foreign currency outside the country, Bahais in Iran
were prevented from contributing to Beit-ul Adl. In
this connection, the American national circle has
announced that it would pay the share of the Bahais in Iran
At present administration of the affairs of the world Bahais is directly under the supervision of Beit-ul Adl in Israel. Beit-ut Adl has nine members six of whom are American, one British, and two Iranians who have been elected from circles out of Iran. The members are:
UHJ member ( 1963 )
8.Ali Nakhjavani (of the central and eastern Africa
9. Hushmand Fath A’zam (secretary of the Indian national circle)
The above mentioned members, except for the third named, have been members of Beit-ul Adl since 1963. The arrangement shows that Americans collect precise information and reports from all over the world and that these same people make plans for circles in Africa and Latin America and all over the world.
The U.S. Embassy, a Liaison Between iranian and American Bahais :
The ‘Great Satan’, eversince the victory of the Islamic Revolution, has employed a variety of tricks to weaken the revolution, including its exploitation of religious minorities and its fabricated faiths. Of course, the U.S. support for such sects is not a proof to its sympathy with the followers of these misled creeds but rather an indication to the fact that it resorts to such a diabolic means to place adherents of such pseudo-religions or sects against Islam and Muslims in order to safeguard its own interests. The following documents are vivid proofs to such a reality:
1. Khatabat-e Abdol Baha. Speech delivered at Miss Cropper’s house, 1911
2. Ahang Badi magazine No. 16015, page 15
Min Makatib ‘Abdu’l-Baha: Selections from the Tablets of Abdu’l-Baha (Arabic)
Rulings And Viewpoints Of Muslim Ulema on Bahaism
Picture : Cairo, Egypt — The courtyard of Al-Azhar Mosque, the center of Al-Azhar University, the oldest university in Egypt
In this section, for further information of our dear readers, viewpoints and rulings of a number of authorized religious leaders and famous jurisprudents against Bahaism are referred to in order to show how Muslim ulema treat this schism.
Dr. Sheikh Abdolmon’en al-Nahr, a renowned Muslim personality comments on the apostasy and excommunication of the Bahais as follows:
“…We know that the Bahais were formerly Muslims but they later abandoned Islam and founded a new creed in order to harm the religion. Therefore, from the very beginning of the advent of this pseudo-religion, religious rulings have been issued against them, either they were Muslims and were converted to Bahaism, or were born of Bahai parents. There is a unanimity of views among Muftis in this conneciton…”
Sheikh Abu Zohrh in the book Tarikh al-Madhaheb al-Islamiya (History of Islamic Sects) described Bahaism as: “A crude mixture which is far from Islamic ideologies…” The Egyptian Mufti in 1971 stated: “If a person is converted from Islam to Bahaism, he is considered an apostate and rulings about apostasy should be enforced against him. His marriage is null and avoid irrespective of whether his wife is a Bahai or not…”
Sheikh Abdol Latif, an Egyptian Mufti and professor at Al-Azhar University, in an interview with ‘Al-Muslemoun’ publication, dated 1985/3/9 said: “No doubt, Bahaism, which is an apostasy in view of Islam and whose ideologies are all against Muslims and deny missions of all prophets, especially Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.), is the worse type of infidelity…”
Sheikh Salim Al-Bashri, also a professor at Al-Azhar University, in an interview printed in volume 692 of the Egyptian daily Misr-al Fatah in 1950, said: “If a Muslim is converted to Bahaism, he is considered an apostate and Islamic rulings for infidels should be applied against him.” Another publication, Monar al-lslam has quoted Al-Bashri’s comments about Abbas Afandi as saying: “He was an infidel.” This same Egyptian Mufti on 1985/3/7 in another daily Al-Wafd said: “…Bahai ideologies and teachings are anti-Islamic and their followers are excommunicated from Islam. We have issued our rulings against their science and Ali is its gate.” For this same reason, he called himself Bab (gate) and first claimed that he was the gate to the appearance of the Promised Imam, Mahdi, and later claimed he was Imam Mahdi himself. In the last days of his life, he claimed that he was the God and therefore called himself A’la’ (the superior). Later, Mirza Hussein Ali Mazandarani (Baha), who was Bab’s contemporary, followed the same path until the time that Bab was arrested and killed for his apostasy. Therefore, Baha announced that he had been chosen as Bab’s successor and became the Bahai leader and called himself Bahaoddin. He transgressed all limits in his claims and announced that all religions had served as a prelude to the emergence of his faith, adding that all of them were incomplete and nothing except his religion would complete the previous religions. He also claimed that he possessed divine characteristics and that his name is similar to that of the ‘Hallowed’ name of the Almighty God. “In the manner that Islam nullified all previous religions. Bahaism would therefore annul Islam” he claimed.
Bab and his followers have made odd interpretations of verses of the Holy Qur’an according to their corrupt invitation. He became so powerful in his claims that he would allow himself to change principles of the divine religion according to his wish and would invent new methods of worship for his followers.
The anti-Islamic aspect of the Bahai ideologies, especially Babism, has become quite clear for the Council of Jurisprudence Assembly and thus, the assembly unanimously announces the apostatic nature of Bahaism and Babism and considers the faith as an open war against Islam, and regards their followers absolute infidels.
The assembly, therefore, warns all Muslims in the world against this criminal group and calls on them to resist against followers of this fabricated faith. It also calls on Muslims to beware of the plots of imperialist, countries since they would support Bahaism in order to sow discord among Muslims and deal a blow on Islam.
Signed by the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and eight members of the council
Now, after a review of the opinions of the Muslim ulema and thinkers about this fabricated sect, we go through viewpoints of Islamic scientists on the faith’s connection to Zionism and imperialism and the role imperialist circles played in their support. The great Islamic writer Sattar Mohyedin Al-Khatib, on page 8 of the book Darasat Anal Babiya va Bahaiya (Studies About Babis and Bahais) has written: “Some are of the idea that hands of foreign countries, either Britain or Russia, could be seen behind this religion (Bahaism) and that those are the same hands which have invented Bahaism and Babism. But, in my opinion, this is an exaggerated comment since foreigners are not capable of creating such religious trends. However, they would not hesitate to misuse such sects after their emergence to their own advantage.”
Also, on page 41 of the above-mentioned book, Ali Al-Mansour, the consultant of the chairman of the Administrative Court of the Council of Ministers of Egypt, has been quoted as saying: “Bahaism is one of the invented sects which has been excommunicated from Islam and its followers are apostate and there
apostasy.” The committee of religious rulings of Al-Azhar University has also ruled that, “Bahai faith is unvalid and has no connection with Islam. Any Muslim who converts to Bahaism is an apostate and infidel.”
Another Al-Azhar University professor has said, “Bahaism is a political pro-Zionism grouplet.”
Al-Azhar Islamic University
Sheikh Jad-al Haq Ali Jad-al Haq, another Al-Azhar professor, in a statement released in connection with the arrest of two Egyptian groups, one led by a doctor who claimed io have prophetic mission, and the other by a Bahai artist, announced that Muslims should boycott those who have turned away from religion and should not transact with them. “Any help to them or marriage with them is prohibited according to Islam”, he added. The statement stipulated that if the two mentioned groups do not repent, they are considered apostates. It further added that Bahaism is a void religion which not only is rejected by Islam but has no connection to Christianity or Judaism. “Rather”, the statement continued, “it is a group subservient to international Zionism and is commissioned to implement its vicious schemes in Arab and Islamic countries, the most obvious proof to which is recognition of Haifa as the Qiblah of the Bahais”. The sheikh called on the two groups to repent and return to Islam. In his comments printed in the weekly Al-Lawa al-Islamic in 1985, he said: “Bahaism is a false religion which is rejected by Islam.”
Finally, the following is the text of the fourth resolution of the Jurisprudence Assembly of Egypt on Bahaism which is needless of any interpretation.
Fourth Resolution; Rulings on Bahaism and its Followers :
Praise be upon God, the One and Only, and blessings on his Prophet, the one that has not been followed by other prophets. The Council of the Jurisprudence Assembly has made a survey of Bahaism which emerged in Iran in the second half of the past century and which is presently being followed by a group of people who are dispersed in Muslim and non-Muslim countries. The council has also reviewed the research work which has been conducted by a large number of scientists and writers and those who are fully aware of the real nature of this sect and its emergence, as well as of the biography of its founder Mirza Hussein Ali Mazandarani, born on 12 November 1817 and those of his successors, his son Abbas Afandi, known as Abdol Baha, and finally of their activities. After a lengthy discussion, the council came to the following conclusions:
1. Bahaism is a newly invented faith which is based upon another new sect invented by a person called Bab (Ali Mohammed), born in Shiraz in October 1819. This person in the beginning had tendencies towards Sufism but later invented his sect upon instigations of his misled leader Kazem Rashti, who believed that he had the characteristics of angels. In the beginning, Ali Mohammad would repeat the same claims as his leader did, but, after a while separated from him and claimed that he was the same as Imam Ali Ibn Abi Taleb about whom the Prophet has stated that: “I am the city of execution is a must.”
picture : Seyyed Jamaleddin Afghani (Assadabadi)
Seyyed Jamaleddin Afghani (Assadabadi), has also expressed his views on page 155 of the weekly Monar al-lsiam as follows: “Bahaism is one of the dangerous religions and has an anti-Islamic philosophy. It is a sect in which the Jews play a big role. In 1842, the Babis announced their separation from Islam and started their fight with Islam and Arabic language.”
Meanwhile, the same publication on page 343 of its 7th volume has quoted Seyyed Rashid Reza, the great Islamic thinker and editor-in-chief of the said weekly as saying: “Bahaism is based on Babism whose foundations are laid on corruption. Therefore, how do you expect Muslims to accept Bahaism and Babism which, like Christianity, attribute divine characteristics to human beings?”
Image : Cairo / Egypt
Mr. Abdol Aziz Nashi, a teacher and himself a student of Seyyed Rashid Reza, delivered a speech at the Islamic Guidance Society of Cairo which appeared on page 24 of the book Azva va Haqayeq Anal Babiya val Bahaiya (facts about Babis and Bahais): “…In my opinion, it is a duty shouldered by the scientists, orators and thinkers, as well as all those who are influential among the people, men and women and all those who could read and write, to advise Muslims and warn them against being deceived by Bahaism and against attending their circles or reading their books…Bahais are the most dangerous axes created to uproot Islam.”
Dr. Mohammad Nassir on page 59 of the
above-mentioned book has commented about the
interest of imperialism and Zionism to support this sect
and written: “Bahais say that the proof to the emergence
of Baha is the influence of his words and expansion of his invitation in the absence of any human liaison but rather through the Divine Will. Such a reasoning is in fact a proof to the selfishness of the Bahais and is quite untrue. The Bahais have been attacked everywhere except for those places where imperialism and Zionism according to their advantages have supported them.” As a proof to his statement, he has mentioned an instance in the next two pages of the book, saying: “…Abdol Baha continued his services for imperialism as he was serving the interests of Zionism in the same manner. Abdol Baha helped the British and the Indians to dominate over Palestine in the course of the World War I and after the war ended to the advantage of Britain, the British government in a splendid ceremony held on April 27, 1920 at a military headquarter in Haifa, presented him with the decoration, the Imperial House of Britain. Meanwhile, Zionism sensitively responded towards news concerning Bahaism. For instance, at the time of the formation of the Bahai circle, the report was repeatedly broadcast by Israeli radio stations, together with congratulations and felicitations on the occasion of their new year. In return, representatives of international Bahaism appreciated the kind attitude of the Israeli government towards the Bahais…There are other instances proving an amicable tie between Zionism and Bahaism.”
Professor Bent al-Shati, on the relation between Bahaism and Zionism says: “Zionism has been unmasked and has mobilized all its forces at the service of Abdol Baha. He has wasted properties of the Jews in order to render financial assistance to a faith which has emerged according to the interests of Israel. It has also mobilized a group of followers of the faith in the Islamic East, where Abbas Afandi had faced the severest Muslim resistance, in order to propagate in favour of the sect and expand the dimension of its domination. It was at the time of Baha when Zionism was unmasked and revealed its vicious scheme ‘from the Nile to the Euphrates’ and commissioned Bahaism as one of its collaborators to pave the way for the entry of Judaism into the ‘Promised Land’. Abdol Baha then wrote a treatise called Surat-ol Muluk in which he criticized the Turkish monarch under the pretext of making a distinction between the rights of Muslims and those of the Jews. The headquarters of Bahaism on ‘Al-Karmal’ mountain has become a den for the ring leaders of international Zionism and their mercenaries among whom some had been assigned to major posts in Israeli institutions since the birth of the Israeli regime.
An article printed in Al-Akhbar Al-Amriya weekly, the official publication of the international circle of Bahaism in 1951, throws more light on the subject: ‘The assistants of Amrollah, introduced members of the Bahai community at the international Bahai center to the Israeli president and his wife. His Excellency the president has talked about his excursion in the gardens of Jabal Karmal and his visit with the beloved Amrollah in the years 1909-1911 and also his meetings with Baha.” ( Al-Ahram newspaper, dated 1973/9/14)
Mr. Taha al-MowIa, a Muslim historian, holds some viewpoints in this connection which has been printed in the 63rd volume of the weekly Al-Alam: “Muslim ulema have cursed Bahaism but the Jews have promulgated the faith. Bahaism has attacked Islam and claims that the era of Islam has come to an end and therefore is trying to sow the seeds of its fabricated religion which is a combination of Judaism, Christianity, Islam and idolatry.”
Mr. Khaled Mohammad Khaled, a Muslim thinker, expressed his ideas on Bahaism and its fabricated ideologies as: “My study about Bahaism revealed an ugly profile of the faith. The late Imam Sheikh Mohammad AI-Khezr Hussein had made a survey over the sect and had obtained deep knowledge about it. In one instance he has said; ‘This sect is excommunicated from Islam and its followers who claim to be commissioned for prophetic missions and even go far beyond that, and who deny miracles under the pretext of being irrational…and do not believe in the Resurrection Day, Heaven and Hell, who disregard Hajj and even intend to destroy Ka’aba, are apostate.-.Bahaism is an invention of a ‘mind’ which had various political inclinations and, therefore, the faith is considered as a deceitful religion.”
The prominent Iraqi religious personality Sheikh Mohammad Hussein Al-Kashef Al-Gheta in an interview with the weekly Felestine al-Thowra has stated: “…Many years ago we received a pamphlet in Persian which said that a person has come from the Czarist Russia to Tehran who later learnt Persian and converted to Islam. He would instigate people to rise and would teach military techniques to the Babis to make them ready to attack the Iranian army. This man (Dolgroki whose memoir has been recently translated from Farsi and who is himself a translator at the Russian embassy) was later promoted to the rank of minister extraordinary and finally to the post of the ambassador.”
And, in order to have a happy conclusion to all the above-mentioned quotations, Imam Khomeini’s views on Bahaism, printed in the Arabic Kayhan in 1982, are quoted as follows: “Even if we do not have any witness which could serve as a proof to the fact that Bahais are U.S. mercenaries and spies, Reagan’s support for them is the best proof to this claim.”